Before we continue, we must discuss some words that you may not be familiar with. We will use this terminology throughout the course.


Bio-availability refers to the availability of nutrients that are eaten, to the body. Just because we eat something in our diet doesn’t mean that 100% of that nutrient will be absorbed and used by our bodies. Various things can happen to the nutrients.

  • The nutrient in a particular food can be stored in a way that makes it difficult to digest. It passes through the body without being absorbed.
  • Other compounds in the diet bind to the nutrient, blocking absorption. For example, tannins in tea can bind to iron, blocking absorption.
  • Even if the nutrient is absorbed across the digestive tract into our blood stream, the nutrient may not be used efficiently in the body. Protein containing foods that are low in certain amino acids are less efficient as building muscle.

The concept of bioavailability is important when talking about vegan diets. We will discuss the importance of bioavailability later in this course.


Satiety refers to the feeling of fullness we get after eating a food or meal.

  • Low satiety means that we still feel hungry after eating.
  • High satiety means that we feel full after eating.

Because of their high fibre content, vegan diets can have a high level of satiety. They can blunt your appetite. This means you may eat fewer calories that you need. This is of particular importance for athletes who train hard and burn several hundred/thousand calories per day (e.g. endurance athletes – runners, cyclists, triathletes). Over a period of months and years, not eating enough calories to support your training can lead to several serious health complications.

g/kg BW

In sports nutrition, carbohydrate, protein and fat (macro-nutrients) intakes are expressed in grammes per kg of body weight. This allows a scaled intake depending on your body size. This allows the determination the number of grammes you need to eat to hit your targets. As an example:

  • Recommendation of carbohydrate intake 3-5g/kg BW
  • Person weighs 75kg
  • Carbohydrate intake range is:
    • 3 x 75 = 225g
    • 5 x 75 = 375g
  • Therefore, required intake of carbohydrate is between 225-375g.

This is important because based on the training you do on a given day, your carbohydrate and protein targets can change. Carbohydrate intake on a rest day will be lower than carbohydrate intake on a heavy training day.

Using a free app like MyFitnessPal allows someone to periodically measure their food intake and determine if they are eating the correct amount of carbohydrate, protein or fat based on their activity levels.

Fortified Foods

Fortified foods are foods that have vitamins and minerals added to the food during the manufacturing process. As we will talk about in the micro-nutrient section, a vegan diet can be low in certain vitamins and minerals. Eating fortified foods can increase the quantity of certain vitamins (e.g. Vitamin D and B12) and minerals (e.g. calcium, iron, iodine) in a vegan diet and can help to prevent deficiency.


Anabolic refers to building in humans. This can refer to building new enzymes, new components of cells and new tissues. When we refer to anabolic throughout this course, we are generally referring to building new muscle tissue.


An omnivore is an animal that eats both plant (e.g. fruits, vegetables, grains, pulses) and animal matter (e.g. meat, fish, eggs, dairy etc).


Grains are edible dry seeds from plants called cereals. They provide more food energy worldwide than any other food group. Examples of grains include:

  • Wheat
  • Oats
  • Rice
  • Rye
  • Freekeh
  • Barley
  • Buckwheat
  • Bulgur
  • Quinoa
  • Cous-cous
  • Corn/maize

Iron Deficiency Anaemia

A condition in which blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body’s tissues. As the name implies, iron deficiency anemia is due to insufficient iron in the diet.

Lack of red blood cells reduces the ability to transport oxygen to cells and tissues. This can lead to: tiredness, lethargy and reduced exercise performance, especially in endurance sports.


Legumes are plants that bear fruit that grows in pods. Examples of legumes include:

  • Beans
  • Lentils
  • Peas
  • Peanuts


My name is Kevin Beasley and I’m a performance nutritionist. I have worked with inter-county Gaelic football teams (male and femKerry v Mayo - GAA Football All-Ireland Senior Championship Semi-Finalale) at both senior and underage levels for the past eight years. I also have vast experience of working with clients from a variety of different sports.

If you are someone who enjoys working out but can’t get to the gym now because of the current lockdown, you may be fretting over your nutrition. You may be unsure over what you should be eating due to reduced training intensity or frequency. However, there are some easy steps you can take to remain in good shape, maintain a good body composition and most importantly remain healthy.

The global sports supplement is big business – $15.6 billion in 2019 and is expected to grow annually by 9% until 2027. One of the first questions many people ask me when they discover I’m a sports nutritionist is what supplements should be taking? This is the wrong question to ask! This post will explain why people supplement, some of the benefits of supplementation and some of the problems with supplementation.

Why Supplement?

Supplements are pills or powders that are taken by people to supplement a person’s diet. Why do people supplement?

  • To compensate for an inadequate or poor diet (e.g. vitamin and mineral supplement)
  • As an insurance policy (i.e. just in case your diet is deficient in something)
  • Convenience and timesaving (e.g. having a protein shake after the gym)
  • Marketing & hype – many supplements are marketed as providing amazing benefits – transform your physique, enhance performance and
  • Improve training and performance


Food First Approach

One of the major changes among sports nutritionists (SN) in the past 5 years is the “food first” approach to dietary advice. Previously, SN would freely advise clients with regards supplement usage. However, that has changed. So, what is the “food first” approach?

Food First is a simple message – a varied diet consisting of whole, natural foods is always more beneficial, and safer, than supplements. Why is this? Sports nutrition scientists have found that eating whole foods provide extra benefits over consuming supplements alone. Whole foods contain a wide variety of nutrients that act synergistically. As an example, consuming a whole egg is better for building muscle that consuming an egg white. Nutrients in the egg yolk help with the digestion and usage of the protein in the egg white versus consuming the egg white alone.

Natural whole foods also contain more vitamins and minerals than supplements (i.e. they are more nutrient dense). You are getting more “bang for your buck” by eating a whole food diet than relying on supplements.

Many people use supplements as a time saving device. If you are in the gym in the morning before work, then you may not have the time to cook a breakfast afterwards…consuming a protein shake is more convenient and less time consuming. However, with many people working from home, they now have the ability to cook a healthy breakfast after a work-out.

Athletes often use supplements to compensate for a poor diet. Many athletes now find themselves in a situation where they have less demands on their time. I would advise that using this time to improve on your cooking skills (e.g. cooking new meals, trying out different foods) would be very beneficial in the long-term.


Problems with Supplements

There are a number of basic problems with supplements:

  • Supplement quality – many protein powders are laced with cheap “fillers”. Cheap ingredients are used to bulk out protein powders, so it seems that you are getting value for money. These “fillers” are already abundant in most people’s diet and they will not get any extra benefit from consuming these powders.
  • Contamination – many supplements can be deliberately or accidentally contaminated with illegal ingredients. For example, some pre-workout supplements are deliberately contaminated with illegal stimulants to give the user a “buzz”. These “extra” ingredients are often not listed on the label or are hidden under a different name. It is therefore highly advised to only use batch tested supplements (check for batch tested supplement database). While these batch tested supplements are usually more expensive, they give you peace of mind.
  • Quick Fix – many people view supplements as a quick fix to remedy deficiencies in their diets. The best advice from a sports performance and over-all health perspective is to focus on whole foods first, rather than supplements.
  • Overlook other strategies – athletes may often use supplements and overlook other, less glamorous options as a means to improve training and performance (e.g. mental preparation, sound nutritional practices, adequate sleep and rest).
  • Ad-hoc usages – most supplements have strict protocols regarding when to take them. Sometimes, these protocols are not followed meaning that the benefits of the supplement are greatly reduced (e.g. forgetting to take it, taking too much or too little).
  • Drain on resources – supplements cost money and can be a drain on limited resources.
  • Marketing hype around a particular brand or supplement can lead to false expectations.
  • Responders vs Non-responders – many people who take supplements may not gain any benefits. For example, if you have naturally high stores of creatine in your muscle, supplementation may not have a beneficial effect.


Over-use of Supplements

Long-term use of supplements can cause problems. Studies have shown that long-term, high doses of Vitamin C and E can blunt the bodies response to endurance training (Paulsen et al., 2015). Theses high doses will only be achieved through supplementation – it would be impossible to hit these intake levels through a food first approach.

Consuming high doses of Vitamin D without proper medical supervision and testing can lead to hyper-calcemia (high levels of Calcium in the blood) (Marcinowska-Suchowierska et al., 2018). Hyper-calcemia can lead to weak bones, kidney stones and interfere with how your heart and brain works.



Many people are aware of the concept of periodisation – this is the planned variation in training volume and intensity in order to elicit improvements in performance and to peak physically at the right time. A similar concept has now emerged in sports nutrition. You vary your diet based on the type of training you’re doing at any given time. Periodisation can also be applied to supplement usage. Some examples:


Vitamin D

Vitamin D is known as the sunshine vitamin and our skin makes it naturally upon exposure to sunlight. People living in the northern hemispheres (e.g. Ireland and Northern Europe) have a higher risk of becoming deficient in Vitamin D during the Winter (October to March). This is due to the lack of daylight, weak sun, spending more time indoors and wearing lots of clothes when out-doors.

Conversely, during the Summer months, as little as 15 mins of sun exposure per day will stimulate the skin to produce Vitamin D. You also have a naturally feedback mechanism whereby when you produce enough Vitamin D, your skin stops producing it. This mechanism doesn’t work if you are supplementing.

Therefore, it might be advisable to supplement with Vitamin D during the Winter (if deficient – a blood test will determine this), whereas during the Summer months it would not be advised as there will be sufficient sunlight and opportunity to go outdoors.



Phospho-creatine is a natural occurring substance in the human body and is used as a source of energy for explosive movements (e.g. sprinting). A person eating a normal diet will consume 1-2g of creatine naturally every day and supplementation will increase muscle creatine stores by approximately 15-20%.

With regards periodisation, creatine may be effective during periods of heavy training, muscle building training blocks, heavy anaerobic work (e.g. sprint interval sessions) and during competition. It would be prudent to periodise creatine intake to these periods to improve training performance and adaptations to training.

Remember, creatine is a source of energy for explosive type movements and if you are not using explosive type movements during your training, then the supplementation of creatine might be unwarranted.

Experts advise that creatine is an acceptable nutritional strategy if you are consuming a well-balanced diet. If you are not consuming a well-balanced diet, then it is strongly advised to work on improving your diet quality first before supplementation.

Nutrition Pyramid

The above diagram shows the performance nutrition pyramid. The purpose of this is to illustrate the importance of your everyday diet in promoting good health and performance. Your everyday diet is the most important factor and is the foundation of your diet as an athlete. This is where you will make the most gains in energy levels, body composition, training quality and performance.

Consider it similar to be able to perform the most basic skills in your sport (e.g. controlling the ball, passing and scoring in most team sports). If you cannot do these simple skills, then your ability to perform effectively in a game will be diminished.

You will get the most benefit from working on the basic nutrition skills (e.g. understanding of what’s a healthy food, what should I eat before and after training, how much protein should I consume, how much carbohydrate should I consume, hydration). Most supplements, if effective provide miniscule improvements to performance (i.e. 0.5 – 1%, equivalent to a 10sec 100m sprinter shaving 0.05 to 0.1 seconds off their time). Supplements should only be considered when you have made improvements in many other areas of your life and you are looking for the tiny margins to bring you to the elite level.

With this in mind, consider areas of your everyday life where you can make improvements that will have a greater impact?

Please check in next week as I will be posting another blog on sports nutrition.

If you have any questions, please email me at:

Check out my website and my YouTube channel which I update regularly with cooking demonstrations and recipes. I also have interviews with Kerry footballing greats discussing the importance of sports nutrition

Subscribe to my YouTube channel and get a notification every time I post a new video.

Finally, check out my blog for further posts on sports nutrition related topics.

Stay safe everyone, wash your hands regularly and practice physical distancing!





My name is Kevin Beasley and I’m a performance nutritionist. I have worked with inter-county Gaelic football teams (male and female) at both senior and underage levels for the past eight years. I also have vast experience of working with clients from a variety of different sports.
If you are someone who enjoys working out but can’t get to the gym now because of the current lock-down, you may be fretting over your nutrition. You may be unsure over what you should be eating due to reduced training intensity or frequency. However, there are some easy steps you can take to remain in good shape, maintain a good body composition and most importantly remain healthy.


The past three posts have looked at basic nutrition information and dietary recommendations for different types of training. However, knowledge of this is not enough! You need to be able to execute it and put it into practice!

One of the biggest mistakes I made when I first started out as a sports nutritionist was that I assumed that if I told someone to do something, they would do it. I quickly learned that was not the case. People found it difficult to execute my meticulous nutrition plans for a variety of reasons:

  • Work/life balance – too much going on in their lives – training, playing, work or college, personal relationships.
  • Education/knowledge – not sure why they should be following a particular strategy. Not sure what types of foods they should be eating.
  • Dis-organised – couldn’t find the time or didn’t have skills to be organised.
  • Culture – were raised eating certain meals or foods that might not be compatible with optimal nutrition.
  • Palate – liked certain types of foods and disliked others; not willing to try new foods that might be beneficial.
  • Environment – didn’t have access to adequate cooking facilities; lived with people who frequently consumed treat foods or less healthy meals (e.g. pizza).
  • Cooking Skills – didn’t have cooking skills to prepare nutritious meals.

Over time, this led me to realise that my role wasn’t giving orders and expecting people to carry them out, but to identify barriers to good nutrition and find ways to overcome these. For the rest of this blog, I will look at some of these barriers and ways to overcome them.



Shopping List

The best way to eat a healthy diet is to have healthy food available when you need it. In order to do this, you need to develop the habit of shopping on a regular basis and ensuring that you don’t run low on healthy food.

Looking at shopping I break it down into three categories:

  • Perishable Items – items that go out of date quickly. Examples include:
    • Fresh fruit and vegetables
    • Certain meat, fish and poultry products
    • Dairy – milk and yogurts
    • Fresh herbs

You will probably need to shop for these weekly or bi-weekly.

  • Non-perishable Items – items that don’t go out of date quickly and that you might consume frequently. Examples include:
    • Rice, pasta, noodles, quinoa
    • Nuts, seeds
    • Tinned food (e.g. tinned fish, beans)
    • Frozen food (e.g. frozen vegetables, frozen fruit)

These items can generally be bought in bulk and will keep for months in the cupboard or freezer. Depending on usage, you may only need to buy these types of foods every month.

  • Small Use Items – these are non-perishable items that we only use small amounts of and last a relatively long time. These might include:
    • Seasonings (salt and pepper)
    • Spices (e.g. cinnamon, paprika, curry powder)
    • Cooking fats (coconut, olive or rapeseed oil)
    • Dried herbs (e.g. Herbes de Provence)
    • Sports supplements such as whey protein

Checking your fridge and cupboards, and making a list before you go shopping will ensure that you will always have healthy ingredients at hand to make healthy and nutritious meals. I have created a shopping list template that might give you some ideas. This list is tailored to the recipes I give my clients (and I eat myself). Yours might be different but the goal is to have a checklist to make it easier when you go shopping.

Your shopping list should be based on your training for the coming week:

  • Do you need more carbs on certain days or more protein on other days?
  • Have you included healthy snacks that you can eat between meals if your feeling peckish?
  • Do you have lots of fresh fruit and vegetables for their fibre, vitamin and mineral content?

Write out your training schedule for the coming week and write down what you might eat on a given day. This will help you to decide what you will buy.

In the shop


In this era of COVID-19, here are some tips for you when shopping to prevent risk of exposure to or infecting another person with COVID-19:

  • Wear a mask if possible.
  • Use a cloth bag or bags – these can be washed.
  • Sanitize your hands on entering and leaving the store.
  • Wash your hands before going shopping and upon your return.
  • Limit your shopping trips to once a week if possible – you will be minimizing your risk of exposure.
  • Commit before you touch food. Don’t handle food unnecessarily as it will increase the risk of infection for someone else if you have COVID-19 (you may be asymptomatic). Look at the food, decide which one you will choose and only then touch it.
  • One person goes shopping – limiting exposure to infection or decreasing risk of passing on infection.
  • Pay electronically if possible.

Further detailed advice is available here.


Here are some further tips when shopping:

  • Shop around the edge of the supermarket. While not ironclad, most of the healthier foods are found around the perimeter.
  • Check the labels – a processed food generally comes in packaging and has a label. The label will contain information on ingredients and a nutritional breakdown. As a rule of thumb, if a processed food has 5 or more ingredients then you should not put it in your basket. Also, look at the ingredients and if there are lots of ingredients you don’t recognise, it’s probably best avoided. As an example, a plain yogurt will have one ingredient while a low-fat, flavoured yogurt might have 10 ingredients.
  • Minimize processed foods – consumption of processed foods is linked to increased risks of certain health problems and weight gain. If a food has bright and shiny packaging and is marketed in print or screen media, chances are it’s a processed food. One of my favorite sayings is – “Real food comes from a farm, not a factory – eat more real foods”. Most of your shopping basket should contain real food. You can look at infographics here and here to give you an idea of how to identify processed foods.
  • Support local business – buy your meat and poultry from your local butcher, your fish from your local fishmonger, your fruit and vegetables in your local fruit and veg shop. As well as supporting local jobs and businesses, you will also be helping the environment as the food will not have far to travel.

Other Shopping and Organisational Tips

Some other tips that will help when shopping:

  • Shop when you have time – it’s best to do your big shop at the weekend or during times when shops are quiet (e.g. late at night). You will have more time and be less stressed. If you are stressed, you will be more likely to forget something.
  • Don’t shop when you’re hungry – if you do, you might end up buying treat foods that you normally wouldn’t for a quick “hit” or “fix”.
  • Keep a list on your fridge door and write down immediately something runs out – otherwise you might forget.
  • Always make sure you have food in your fridge and cupboard to make quick and easy nutritios meals. Examples:
    • Chicken, frozen stir-fry veg and noodles for stir fry.
    • Frozen fruit for smoothie.
    • Natural yogurt and museli.

Value for Money

Most people think that eating a healthy and nutritious diet is expensive…it’s not! It actually saves money over time and is better for your health. Why most people fall down is that they lack the cooking skills or are not adventurous enough to cook and prepare new meals and recipes. There are many great online resources that I will share with you next week to get you cooking new meals for the whole family.


  • Look at your training week and based on what you are doing (more carb based meals some days, more protein based meals and snacks other days), plan out a rough meal schedule for the week.
  • Check your fridge and cupboards and prepare a list.
  • Follow the guidelines for shopping during COVID-19.
  • Support your local smaller shops including butchers, fishmongers and fruit and vegetable stores.

Join me again next week as I will be looking at cooking skills and will share suggest some excellent resources for you.

If you have any questions, please email me at:

Check out my website and my YouTube channel which I update regularly with cooking demonstrations and recipes. I also have videos from Kerry footballing greats discussing the importance of sports nutrition.

Subscribe to my YouTube channel and get a notification every time I post a new video.

Follow me on Twitter: @metabolise

Finally, check out my blog for further posts on sports nutrition related topics.

Stay safe everyone, wash your hands regularly and practice physical distancing!




My name is Kevin Beasley and I’m a performance nutritionist. I have worked with inter-county Gaelic football teams (male and female) at both senior and underage levels for the past eight years. I also have vast experience of working with clients from a variety of different sports.
If you are someone who enjoys working out but can’t get to the gym now because of the current lock-down, you may be fretting over your nutrition. You may be unsure over what you should be eating due to reduced training intensity or frequency. However, there are some easy steps you can take to remain in good shape, maintain a good body composition and most importantly remain healthy.


I’ve spent the last two blog posts going through some basic concepts in nutrition. It is important that you understand these concepts as these will be the foundation for what will we cover in the next few posts.

As a sports nutritionist, I look at food from a functional perspective. That is, what function a food or meal will serve in relation to training, performance and recovery.

Some of the functions that food provides:

  • Fueling before training and re-fueling afterwards (carbohydrates)
  • Repairing and rebuilding muscle (protein)
  • Hydration (fluid)
  • Health (whole fruits, vegetables, small amounts of healthy fats)
  • Body Composition (energy balance – total calorie intake and proportion of carbohydrate, protein and fat in the diet)

The secret is to balance out your meals based on your daily training schedule and your body composition goals.

Fueling (Carbohydrate)

A basic rule in sports nutrition is – “Fuel for the Work Required”. Basically, if you have a long duration and/or high intensity session, you need to consume more carbohydrate. If you have a rest day, you consume less. This relates back to the table below from the first blog post.


(g/kg BM/day)

Low Intensity or Skill based activities 3 – 5
Moderate exercise program (approx. 1 hour per day) 5 – 7
1 – 3 hours per day or moderate to high-intensity exercise 6 – 10

On high carbohydrate intake days (higher activity levels), you will eat bigger carbohydrate portions, more carbohydrate containing snacks etc.

On lower carbohydrate intake days (rest days or shorter duration training sessions), you will eat smaller carbohydrate portions.

The reason for this is that in the long-term,  over-consumption of carbohydrate on a rest or low-activity day can lead to accumulation of body fat. Our bodies can only store a limited amount of carbohydrate in our muscles and liver (approx. 500g). If out body stores are full and we continue to consume a high carbohydrate diet, the additional carbohydrate we eat can be converted and stored as body fat.

Now, everybody is different, we all know people who can eat whatever they want and they never put on body fat. These people have the ability to burn off excess calories and not put on body fat. However, others must watch what they consume carefully.

By matching your carbohydrate intake with your activity levels, you will ensure that you fuel up for a session and refuel afterwards. It also ensures that you don’t over fuel up on a day when you don’t need to (i.e. rest or low-activity day).

Repairing and rebuilding muscle (Protein)

As mentioned previously, protein intake is very important for athletes, especially if you go the gym or play a sport where having more muscle is an important factor in performance (e.g. team sports).

Every time you train or compete, you get microscopic tears in your muscle. This is actually a good thing – when these tears are repaired through diet and rest, your muscles bounce back stronger. However, if you don’t recover with a proper diet and rest between training sessions, these microscopic tears can lead to bigger tears and may lead to injury.

Remember, your muscles are made in the most part from protein and you need protein in your diet to repair and build them. When eating protein, you should consume it spaced out over breakfast, lunch and dinner. Most peoples protein intake is skewed towards the end of the day (dinner). Make sure you consume a portion of protein with breakfast and lunch as well. If your goal is to build muscle, you should consider protein containing snacks as well.

We have all heard the term “use it or lose it”. In sports, this refers to many things such as technique, skill, cardiovascular endurance etc. Given the situation we find ourselves in the moment, many of us are a lot more sedentary due to physical distancing, closing of work, lack of access to gyms etc. By being less active we are in danger of losing muscle. One way to protect our muscle is to consume a higher than normal amount of protein in our diet. The consumption target for protein is 1.5 – 2 g/ kg/BM. A higher intake of protein when we are less active can have a protective effect on muscle loss. Following the advice to eat a large portion of protein with every main meal as well as protein containing snacks will help you to hit these targets.


Water is a requirement for optimal physical and mental performance. The requirements for properly hydrating are relatively straight forward.

You should drink water or other suitable beverages every time you eat a meal. Fluid that is drank in combination with food will be absorbed better than fluid drank on an empty stomach. Certain foods also contain significant amounts of water (e.g. potatoes and most fruits).

To ensure you are hydrated, you should check urine colour and volume when you go to the bathroom. If you pass a small volume of urine and/or dark coloured urine then you should start hydrating immediately. Drink a pint of water immediately and then 250-300ml every 30 mins until urine colour and volume is back to normal.

You can see a nice visual guide here.

Be careful over-consuming fluid late at night! It could mean that you will wake up in the middle of the night to visit the bathroom. If you do exercise late in the evening, drink some fluid and the remainder the following morning.

To calculate your fluid requirements after exercise, weigh yourself before and after training in your shorts. Multiple the weight difference by 1.5 (you should have lost weight) and that is the amount of fluid you must consume to re-hydrate. For example, if you lose 2kg in weight during exercise, then to re-hydrate you should be drinking 3L of water to replace fluid lost through sweating. If you’ve gained weight then you’ve either consumed too much fluid or your scales is broken!

It’s OK to lose a small amount of weight during training or competing (approx. 2% of body weight). However, anything over 2% however may hamper performance.


Eating fat is mainly for it’s nutritional benefits – it contains essential fatty acids (omega-3 and 6) and the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Certain fats are anti-inflammatory and may also play a role in building muscle (omega-3). However, we normally don’t need to consume high amounts of fat from a performance perspective. It might actually be detrimental to performance as it might lead to excess body fat in consumed in excess.

Fat plays a role in satiety (feeling full) and a good idea is to add a small amount of fat if eating a carb-free meal. This will help to fill you up and keep hunger away until your next meal. You only need to consume small amounts of health fats. Examples would be 1-2 tbsp of salad dressing if eating a salad; a small amount of cheese or avocado on an omelette; a handful of nuts; some seeds with your porridge; full-fat yogurt and fruit salad.

A new type of diet called a keto-genic diet has gained a lot of popularity over the last 5 years. This type of diet consists of eating large amounts of fat, moderate amounts of protein and very small quantities of carbohydrates. This diet has medical benefits – it’s been shown to help control epilepsy and has also helped some people to achieve dramatic weight loss.

However, this type of diet is not recommended for team sports players. When training and competing, your body relies on carbohydrate for fuel. When operating at a high intensity (e.g. sprinting, jumping), your body needs carbohydrate as a fuel. If you follow a high fat/low carbohydrate diet then your muscles carbohydrate energy stores will be low and your performance will suffer.


Protein (1.5 – 2g/kg BM/day)

  • Eat adequate protein with breakfast, lunch and dinner everyday regardless of whether a training or rest day.
  • If a training day, add in extra protein containing snacks through out the day.
  • Eating sufficient protein when inactive or in a period of reduced training will help to preserve muscle.

Carbohydrates (training dependent)

  • If you’re more active (long duration and/or high intensity session) eat more carbohydrates for fueling and refueling.
  • On rest day eat less carbohydrates.
  • Choose healthy carbohydrate sources most of the time.


  • Eat small amounts of healthy fats sources throughout the day.
  • Add healthy fat sources to carb free meals to promote satiety.

Join me again next week as I will be looking at some of the more practical aspects of sports nutrition such as organisational, shopping, and cooking skills.

If you have any questions, please email me at:

Check out my website and my YouTube channel which I update regularly with cooking demonstrations and recipes. I also have videos from Kerry footballing greats discussing the importance of sports nutrition.

Subscribe to my YouTube channel and get a notification every time I post a new video.

Follow me on Twitter: @metabolise

Finally, check out my blog for further posts on sports nutrition related topics.

Stay safe everyone, wash your hands regularly and practice physical distancing!




My name is Kevin Beasley and I’m a performance nutritionist. I have worked with inter-county Gaelic football teams (male and female) at both senior and underage levels for the past eight years. I also have vast experience of working with clients from a variety of different sports.
If you are someone who enjoys working out but can’t get to the gym now because of the current lock-down, you may be fretting over your nutrition. You may be unsure over what you should be eating due to reduced training intensity or frequency. However, there are some easy steps you can take to remain in good shape, maintain a good body composition and most importantly remain healthy.

In my previous post I covered some of the more basic concepts in sports nutrition – energy balance and the macro-nutrients (carbohydrate, protein and fats). If you haven’t already read the post, you will find it here. In this second section, we will focus more on the micro-nutrients (vitamins and minerals) and their importance for health and performance.

Micro-Nutrients (Vitamins and Minerals)

Whereas macro-nutrients are the nutrients we need to eat in large quantities (100s of grams), micro-nutrients are nutrients we need to eat in smaller quantities (e.g grams, thousands of a gram or millionths of a gram). However, just because we need small amounts of these nutrients doesn’t mean they aren’t important.

Micro-nutrients are required by our bodies for a wide variety of uses that have implications for health and performance. Examples:

  • Low levels of iron can lead to anaemia, tiredness and reduced performance.
  • The B family of vitamins (B1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 12), as well as Vitamin C, iron, magnesium and zinc are involved in energy production.
  • Calcium and Vitamin D are required for strong bones.

There are hundreds of further examples that could be listed. Suffice to say they are required for the smooth running and optimal functioning of our bodies.


Many health or performance issues can be affected by micro-nutrient deficiencies. Basically, this is when we aren’t consuming enough of a particular nutrient and your body doesn’t have enough of it. This can happen for a number of reasons:

  1. Diet high in processed foods and/or lack of whole fruits, vegetables and other whole foods in the diet.
  2. Under-eating – not consuming enough food for our activity levels.
  3. Anti-nutrients – consuming foods or fluids that block our ability to absorb foods. For example, tea contains tannins, and high consumption of tea can block iron absorption.
  4. Disease – inability of our bodies to absorb the nutrients we eat. Examples are celiac disease and cystic fibrosis.

For most people, factor #1 is the pre-cursor for micro-nutrient deficiency. For athletes, #2 can also be a factor.


Is vitamin and mineral supplementation required? Short answer – it depends. If you have sufficient vitamin and mineral intake through eating a diet high in fresh and whole foods, probably not. Studies have shown that supplementing to boost your bodies vitamin and mineral stores above what your body requires doesn’t provide any additional benefits.

Indeed, having too much of a good thing can actual be harmful! Taking high doses of Vitamin C and E can impair or blunt training adaptations, especially for endurance athletes. The fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) can be stored in your bodies fat cells. Prolonged supplementation can cause a build up in levels of these vitamins in fat stores. If supplementing for a long period of time at a high dose, this can lead to a condition called hyper-vitaminosis, which can be harmful.

The only way you can be sure if you are deficient is to have a blood test. In the current environment, with our health services stretched, this is not a viable option. The best option is to focus on your diet, which will give you everything you need in the right amounts.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is called the sunshine vitamin, and our skin makes it when exposed to sunlight. Our bodies have an amazing ability to self regulate. Your skin will make enough vitamin D with repeated exposure to sunshine. Once you have the required level of vitamin D, your skin will stop making it, even with continued sunlight exposure.

Vitamin D deficiency is common place in Ireland during the winter months due to:

  • Short days
  • Weak sunlight, clouds
  • People are wrapped up when they go out
  • People spend more time indoors.

Most foods are low in Vitamin D. In the absence of sunshine, most people in Ireland may have to supplement during the Winter months to keep their Vitamin D levels at an acceptable level.

However, spring is here. A quick and easy solution is available to boost your low Vitamin D levels and it doesn’t require supplementation. With longer days and the weather finally improving, get outside (respecting the 2km zone and social distancing) and get 15-20 minutes of sunlight per day. Wear shorts and t-shirt (weather permitting). This will naturally boost your Vitamin D levels without having to supplement.


We are well aware of the impact of virus and bacteria on our health. However, we need bacteria for our bodies to function optimally. We have 1 trillion bacteria living in our colon and they play a huge role in our health:

  • Repairing the lining of our gut wall, keeping it in good working order
  • Forms part of our immune system – 70% of our immune system is located in our gut.
  • Synthesizes vitamins – bacteria in your gut help to make Vitamin K which is important for blood clotting and bone health.

Many foods are now on the market to help to boost our gut bacteria. These include:

  • Kefir 
  • Kombucha
  • Pickled foods
  • Yogurts

Consuming these products on a regular basis will help to keep the bacteria levels in our gut healthy. Our gut bacteria also respond to our diets. If you think of bacteria as two populations:

  1. Good, healthy, helpful bacteria
  2. Bad, unhealthy, harmful bacteria.

Eating a diet high in natural foods is beneficial for our healthy bacteria. They thrive when you eat lots of fibre, whole fruits, vegetables, dairy products and lean protein. Eating a diet high in processed foods cause the unhealthy bacteria to become more populous and they kick out the healthy bacteria. If this happens, they will cause damage to your gut lining, and this can lead to chronic inflammation. This chronic inflammation can lead to diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular disease and Chrons disease. It’s vital that you eat the right kinds of foods to keep your healthy bacteria on top.


Polyphenols are compounds found in fruit, vegetables and other foods that play a major role in our health. They help to protect our bodies against cancer, neuro-degenerative and cardiovascular disease. Polyphenols are the compounds that give our food it’s colour – why spinach is green, why a banana is yellow and why an orange is…well…orange. You may have heard a saying – “Eat the colour of the rainbow”. By eating foods of many different colours, we are getting a wide variety of polyphenols (and vitamins and minerals) in our diet.

Foods high in polyphenols include:

  • Whole fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Whole nuts
  • Beans
  • Cocoa powder and dark chocolate
  • Spices and seasonings

As you can see, most foods that are high in polyphenols are also high in viatmins and minerals, so you don’t have to go out of your way to include them in your diet. Eating polyphenol containing foods help to keep us healthy and allow us to train properly. If we’re sick, we can’t train!


While sometimes as athletes we focus too much on calories, carbohydrate, protein and fat, it is vital that we also look after our micro-nutrient intake.

This can be easily achieved by eating whole fruits, adding in vegetables where appropriate, adding spices to foods and getting a regular supply of pro-biotics in our diet. By doing this, we are reducing our risk of illness, keeping ourselves healthy and giving our body the materials it needs to function properly. This will have an impact on the quality of your training and ultimately your performance.

Please check in next week as I will be posting another blog on sports nutrition.

If you have any questions, please email me at:

Check out my website and my YouTube channel which I update regularly with cooking demonstrations and recipes. I also have videos from Kerry footballing greats discussing the importance of sports nutrition.

Subscribe to my YouTube channel and get a notification every time I post a new video.

Finally, check out my blog for further posts on sports nutrition related topics.

Stay safe everyone, wash your hands regularly and practice physical distancing!




My name is Kevin Beasley and I’m a performance nutritionist. I have worked with inter-county Gaelic football teams (male and female) at both senior and underage levels for the past eight years. I also have vast experience of working with clients from a variety of different sports.
If you are someone who enjoys working out but can’t get to the gym now because of the current lock-down, you may be fretting over your nutrition. You may be unsure over what you should be eating due to reduced training intensity or frequency. However, there are some easy steps you can take to remain in good shape, maintain a good body composition and most importantly remain healthy.

Calorie Intake

Before we start on the nitty-gritty, we will take a moment to discuss calories and calorie balance. One of the reasons we eat food is to fuel all our bodies activities throughout the day. These calories provide energy for our metabolism, helps our bodies to digest and process food, and help us to carry out all the activities we do throughout the day.
In order to maintain our current weight, we need to eat the same number of calories that we’ve burned over a 24 hour period. If you eat 2500 calories in a day and you also burn 2500 calories then you should maintain your weight. If you eat less calories (e.g. 2000 calories – calorie deficit), you will lose weight. If you eat more calories (e.g. 3000 calories – calorie surplus), then you will gain weight.


(Image courtesy of First Rate Fitness)

This weight loss or gain can come from many different compartments in out body. These can include:

  1. Body fat
  2. Muscle
  3. Water
  4. Bone
  5. Muscle and liver fuel stores

We normally don’t eat the exact number of calories we need every day. Sometimes we can eat more, sometimes we can eat less. These figures normally balance out over several days. We have inbuilt systems in our body that ensure we compensate if we under eat over eat calories on a given day.

Daily Energy Requirement Calculators

If you would like to calculate how many calories you need to eat on a given day to maintain calorie balance, there are lots of different online calorie calculators available online.
One of the easiest ones to use can be found here .
This calculator will give you an estimate of how many calories you need to eat in order to maintain your weight based on your age, gender, height, weight and activity levels. Whatever number is calculated is just an estimate.

Use this number as a starting point and based on your weight fluctuation over a 7 day period, you can adjust your calorie intake up or down depending on your body composition goals. Add more calories if you want to gain weight, remove calories if you want to lose weight.

Avoid Large Calorie deficits

If you decide that you want to lose body fat over the next several months, I will issue a word of caution. Having a large calorie deficit for a prolonged period of time can lead to:

• Weight loss – either muscle mass, fat mass or a combination of both
• Reduction in your metabolism – this may lead to yo-yo weight loss and weight gain
• Lowered immunity – making your body more susceptible to infections
• Lowered hormone levels</p>
These effects are not desirable, from a performance and a health perspective. It’s normally recommended to keep your calorie deficit within 20% of your maintenance calories.

Example: if your recommended calorie intake to maintain weight is 2000 calories, then you shouldn’t eat less than 1600 calories per day (80% of maintenance calories – 20% deficit) if you’re trying to lose weight.

A good rule of thumb is to try and lose weight while eating as much food as possible.

Food Diary

While it’s not necessary, some people like to record their food intake in order to balance their calorie intake. A free app that many people use is called MyFitnessPal. You can download this app for free. This app will give you accurate measures of how many grams of carbohydrate, fat and protein, as well as calorie, vitamin and mineral intake for a given day. However, you will have to pay for some of the more advanced features on this app.
More simpler measures include writing down your food intake for a given day on a notebook. Other people like to take photos on their phone. Choose whatever method fits with your temperament and lifestyle. The goal is to have a record of what you eat in a given week so that you can make adjustments for subsequent weeks based on whether you’ve achieved your body composition goals or not.

Weekly Weigh-in

It is advisable to weigh in once per week to track changes in weight. The best time to weigh yourself is first thing in the morning after going to the bathroom and before eating breakfast. Weigh yourself on the same day and at the same time every week. Friday morning is generally the best day to weigh-in.


Macro-nutrients are the nutrients that we need to eat in large quantities. In the following sections I will go through the three main macro-nutrients, their functions and the types of foods we find them in.


Protein is a very important nutrient and protein supplements have increased in popularity over the last 10 years. Protein is very important from a sports perspective – it helps to build and repair muscle after a training session, helping to make us stronger and reduce risk of injury. It also plays an important role in strengthening our immune system.

We can get protein from many common foods. The table below gives you examples.

Fresh and tinned fish Tofu
Lean red meat Tempeh
Poultry (chicken & turkey) Chickpeas
Dairy including high-protein versions (milk, yogurt) Quorn/Mycoprotein
Eggs (egg white is protein source) Lentils
Whey protein supplement Quinoa
Whole nuts and seeds

You should eat a portion of protein with breakfast, lunch and dinner everyday (regardless of whether you’re training or not) and include extra protein snacks on resistance training days. One of the benefits of protein is that you can over-consume protein and it will not lead to increased body fat. Over-consumption of carbohydrate and fat can lead to an increase in body fat.

The recommendations for protein intake is between 1.5 – 2g/kg BM/day (read as 1.5 – 2 grams per kg of body mass per day).

Taking an 80 kg person as an example, protein intake would equate to:

80 x 1.5 = 120

80 x 2 = 160

Therefore, an 80 kg person should be eating between 120 and 160 g protein per day.


Our bodies use carbohydrate for energy, especially when we are moving at a higher intensity like when completing a training session. Healthier carbohydrates also contain fibre which is great for our digestive system health.

We have a fixed capacity for carbohydrate storage in our bodies. The average person can store approximately 450 g of carbohydrate in their muscles and liver. High intensity exercise will deplete these carbohydrate stores, so it’s important to re-fill these stores before our next training session. When choosing your carbohydrates, try and choose “natural” over “processed” carbohydrates.

Whole fruits Breakfast cereals
Grains (brown rice, brown pasta, quinoa, cous-cous, oats) Fruit juices
Root vegetables (potatoes, sweet potatoes) Biscuits
Legumes (beans, lentils) Cakes
Brown bread Desserts
Soft drinks

As a rule of thumb, natural carbohydrates contain more nutrients, more fibre and give a more sustained release of energy compared to processed carbohydrates. Processed carbohydrates usually have less fibre and also contain ingredients that may be less beneficial for our bodies (e.g. salt, sugar, artificial colouring’s and flavouring’s).

I am not telling you to never eat processed carbohydrates, just to consume less of them. View them as occasional treats rather than as a part of your everyday diet.

The recommendations for daily carbohydrate intake are based on your activity levels. Given the current situation we are in, the recommendations below will be suitable for most peoples activity levels.


(g/kg BM/day)

Low Intensity or Skill based activities 3 – 5
Moderate exercise program (approx. 1 hour per day) 5 – 7
1 – 3 hours per day or moderate to high-intensity exercise 6 – 10

The amount you eat depends on the duration and intensity of a session. The harder and/or more intense the training session, the greater the intake.

I would recommend eating a carbohydrate containing meal approximately 3 hours before commencing your training session and eating another meal within two hours of finishing to promote recovery and re-fueling.

If your training session lasts longer than 1 hour I would also advise drinking 30 g carbohydrate per hour (500 ml bottle of sports drink contains 30 g carbohydrate).


Fat is the most misunderstood nutrient. It has gained a lot of bad publicity over several decades, being implicated in heart disease and high cholesterol levels. However, this in part can be blamed on processed foods which contain unhealthy combinations of sugar, salt and fat. If we get our fat from natural sources, it is very beneficial to our health and performance.

Fat is used to repair cell walls, make hormones, dampen inflammation, provide the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, as well as essential fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6). We generally only need to consume small amounts of fats with our meals to hit the recommended amounts.

Extra virgin olive oil, rapeseed oil
Milk, cheese, yogurt
Fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, mackerel and herring
Whole nuts and seeds
Dark chocolate

The recommended intake of fat is 1g/kg BM/day.


OK, that’s a lot of information to take in. What can you do to get started? Well, if you don’t want to measure out and weigh your food, here are some simple guidelines to follow:

Non-Training Day

  • Eat a minimum of a palm full of protein with breakfast, lunch and dinner every day.
  • Eat moderate amounts of healthy carbohydrates with breakfast, lunch and dinner every day.
  • Where possible, add in small amounts of healthy fats (e.g. adding nuts or seeds to your morning porridge).
  • Add in vegetables where possible (e.g. onions, spinach, carrots, broccoli etc)

Training Day

  • Add in larger portions of carbohydrates to your meals to fuel-up before training  and re-fuel afterwards.
  • Add in some extra protein containing snacks to help with muscle building and repair.

Please check in next week as I will be posting another blog on sports nutrition.

If you have any questions, please email me at:

Check out my website and my YouTube channel which I update regularly with cooking demonstrations and recipes. I also have videos from Kerry footballing greats discussing the importance of sports nutrition.

Subscribe to my YouTube channel and get a notification every time I post a new video.

Finally, check out my blog for further posts on sports nutrition related topics.

Stay safe everyone, wash your hands regularly and practice physical distancing!



  • Avoid macro and micro-nutrient deficiencies- a blood test to determine micro-nutrient deficiency may be warranted. Eat nutrient dense foods – avoid excessive intake of processed foods.
  • No need for vitamin and mineral supplementation unless deficient. No consistent evidence that higher doses of vitamins and minerals accelerates recovery.
  • Increase protein intake (especially during Immobilization phase) to decrease muscle atrophy (i.e. muscle loss).
  • Adjust energy intake appropriately – you may need to eat more than you think during the initial stages of injury.
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Creatine supplementation may be warranted.


Injury is an excepted fact when participating in athletic activities, whether at the recreational or elite level. An injury may be minor (e.g. slight strain or sprain – a few days absence from training) to major (e.g. ruptured anterior cruciate ligament – six months to one-year absence from training and competition). This post, while being general in nature will provide agreed nutrition strategies to help manage the initial injury and accelerate recovery).

Injury recovery can be divided into two main phases – (1) Immobilization phase and (2) Rehabilitation and Increased Activity [6]. There are slightly different nutritional considerations during these two distinct phases.


Immobilisation Phase

The Immobilization phase occurs immediately after the injury. The injured limb is rested or immobilized to prevent further damage at the site of injury. This may involve wearing a boot, casting, the use of crutches or slings for upper limb injuries.


After an injury, an inflammatory response is initiated. This may last a few days or a few hours, depending on the severity of the injury [3]. This inflammatory response is necessary for healing the tissue at the site of injury. It is completely natural and well controlled process. Expert opinion agrees that there is no need for super doses of anti-inflammatory vitamins and other compounds. For example, high doses of omega-3 fats (anti-inflammatory) have been shown to delay wound healing [3]. It is only when the inflammatory response gets out of control (e.g. serious injuries like burns) that super high doses of anti-inflammatory compounds should be consumed. While excess inflammation may be harmful, attempting to drastically reduce inflammation may not be ideal for optimal recovery [3].

One of the major areas of agreements among experts is that nutrient deficiencies should be avoided as these will impair wound healing. If a long-term injury it may be advisable to get a blood test to diagnose any vitamin or mineral deficiencies. For example, if you live in northern latitudes, Vitamin D3 levels can drop during the winter months (Oct – Mar) due to lack of sunlight [7].

If any deficiencies are detected, then steps should be taken to remedy them, either through consumption of whole foods or supplements. Generally, whole food consumption is advised over supplementation. Whole foods offer the best nutrition- they include components not available in pills. These additional components  have a synergistic effect on the action of whole foods [2].

Deficiencies of energy, vitamins, minerals and macro-nutrients – particularly protein – will impair wound healing and exacerbate loss of muscle and tendon mass and function [3].


What type of whole foods should you be eating at this stage of your injury?

Natural Anti-inflammatories

Garlic, turmeric, green tea, blueberries, apples, citrus fruits, broccoli, pineapples, dark green leafy vegetables

Healthy fats – avocados, nuts (walnuts, cashews, almonds and nut butters), extra virgin oil [2].

Omega-3 rich foods such as fatty fish (salmon, halibut, herring, oysters, sardines, trout and fresh tuna) and plant-based alternatives (flax, chia, hemp seeds, walnuts).



The natural response of a person who is injured is to reduce energy intake – they aren’t as physically active and may be afraid of accumulating excess body fat. However, energy requirements can increase during the healing process. Energy expenditure may be increased by 15% and up to 50% depending on the type and severity of the injury [3]. Additionally, the extra energy cost of ambulation (i.e. using crutches) needs to be considered (2-3 fold above walking) [3]. Drastically reducing energy intake can impair wound healing and cause muscle loss [3]. As a rough rule of thumb, eat less than when training hard but more than when completely sedentary [2].

Carbohydrate intake levels during this phase of recovery will be at the lower end of the carbohydrate intake spectrum (3-5 g/kg BM). These should be in the form of low to medium Glycaemic Index (e.g. whole fruits and vegetables, whole grains).



One of the main consequences of immobilization is loss of muscle mass (atrophy) in the affected limb. This is particularly prevalent during the first two weeks of immobilization [1]. Electro-stimulation of injured limb and training the uninjured limb or other muscle groups can exert some cross-effect to reduce muscle loss [6].

From a nutrition perspective, the best way to reduce this muscle loss is through increased protein intake. Intakes of 2.0 – 2.5 g protein per kg Body Mass (BM) are advised during the immobilization phase [3]. Consuming protein consistently and distributing it evenly throughout the day, rather than back loading at dinner, is the best practice to follow [2].

Leucine rich foods such as chicken breast, lean beef, tuna, salmon, turkey breast, eggs and peanuts should be consumed [2]. Intake of leucine should be in the range of 2.5 – 3g per meal [1]. Because animal protein sources have higher leucine content than plant protein, vegetarian and vegan athletes might contemplate supplementing their diet with a leucine supplement [9]. Vegan athletes may also need to consider a protein supplement (e.g. soy or pea protein) to reach these high protein intake targets.

Ingesting 40g of a casein supplement or whole food source (e.g. cottage cheese) will continue muscle building during sleep and may further prevent muscle atrophy.



Supplementing with creatine has been shown to reduce muscle atrophy. However, upper and lower limb muscles respond differently to creatine supplementation during immobility. Creatine has a more protective effect on the muscle of upper limbs (e.g. arms) versus lower limbs (e.g. legs) [3]. A sensible loading strategy would be 20g/day for 5 days (loading phase) followed by 5g per day (maintenance phase) [7].


Rehabilitation and Increased Activity

This second phase is characterized by progressive hypertrophy and functional recovery [7]. The goal of this phase is to improve the athlete’s functional capacity and fitness to allow a full return to training and competition.


During this phase, the athlete is able to begin exercising the previously injured limb. Progressive loading of the limb will occur in an attempt to promote hypertrophy of the muscle in the injured limb. Protein intake will be important during this phase. Recommendations for protein intake during this phase may be slightly lower than during the immobilization phase. Higher protein intake during the immobilization phase are warranted to overcome anabolic resistance of the muscles in the injured limb. During the rehabilitation phase, exercise of the muscle in the previously injured limb will potentially negate this anabolic resistance.

Slightly lower intakes of protein may be applicable in this phase – 1.2 – 1.8 g protein per kg of BM [10]. Protein should be consumed consistently throughout the day in the form of meals and snacks. Leucine rich foods such as chicken breast, lean beef, tuna, salmon, turkey breast, eggs and peanuts should be consumed.



Creatine supplementation results in an increased rate of muscle growth and strength gains so should be considered to accelerate recovery of muscle mass and function [3]. A similar loading strategy to the immobilization phase should be followed – 20g/day for 5 days (loading phase) followed by 5g per day (maintenance phase).


Energy Intake

Energy intake will increase during this phase as the athlete will be more active and training will become progressively more intense. Most of this extra energy intake will come in the form of additional carbohydrate intake. The following published guidelines will help to tailor carbohydrate intake based on the intensity and duration of training [8].

Description   Carbohydrate (g per kg BM)
Light Low intensity or skill-based activities 3-5
Moderate Moderate exercise program (approx. 1 hour per day) 5-7
High Endurance program (1-3 hours/day moderate to high-intensity exercise) 6-10
Very High Extreme commitment (> 4-5 hours/day moderate to high intensity exercise) 8-12


During initial rehabilitation phase, athletes will be at consuming at the Light level (3-5g Carbohydrate per kg BM). As exercise intensity and duration increases as functional recovery improves, carbohydrate intake will increase.


General nutritional recommendations

During this phase, it would be advisable to consume a variety of whole fruits and vegetables, adding spices and herbs to foods where possible and consume healthy fats high in omega-3 and essential fatty acids. This will help to prevent nutrient deficiencies which may hinder recovery and adaptations to training.


Ligament and Tendon Injuries

Supplementing the diet with collagen rich foods can potentially accelerate ligament and tendon healing and recovery. Foods with high levels of collagen include bone broths, gelatin and jelly. Batch tested collagen supplements may also be recommended during this phase. Consuming 15g gelatin one hour prior to a loading exercise has been shown to increase collagen synthesis in humans [5].

Deficiency of Vitamin C and Copper may impair recovery from ligament and tendon injuries [7]. Therefore, it would be prudent to increase consumption of foods rich in these micro-nutrients. The requirement for Vitamin C is 46 mg per day and for Copper is 1 mg per kg BM [7].

Vitamin C – citrus fruits (e.g. oranges, lemons, broccoli, bell peppers, tomatoes, green leafy vegetables).

Copper – liver and other organ meats, spirulina, shitake mushrooms, almonds and cashew nuts, sesame seeds. Kale and spinach, dark chocolate.


Bone Injuries

Adequate intake of Vitamin D and Calcium is necessary for proper healing of bone injuries. As previously discussed, Vitamin D levels may be insufficient in northern latitudes during the Winter months. A blood test will determine if supplementation is warranted. If deficient, intake of 2,000 – 4,000 IU per day of Vitamin D3 until Vitamin D levels recover is warranted [7]. Sensible sun exposure during the summer months will also boost Vitamin D levels.

Foods that are rich in Calcium include dairy products (e.g. milk, cheese, yogurt), chia seeds, sardines and canned salmon, almonds, beans and lentils.



During a period of injury, it may be natural for an athlete to feel sorry for themselves and consume alcohol in greater amounts than they would if training. This should be avoided during all phases of recovery from injury. Alcohol can impair would healing, can slow down the muscle building process and accelerate muscle loss during immobilization [3].



[1]          B. T. Wall, J. P. Morton, and L. J. C. van Loon, “Strategies to maintain skeletal muscle mass in the injured athlete: Nutritional considerations and exercise mimetics,” European Journal of Sport Science, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 53–62, Jan. 2015.

[2]          J. Kloubec and C. Harris, “WHOLE FOODS NUTRITION FOR ENHANCED INJURY PREVENTION AND HEALING,” ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal, vol. 20, no. 2, p. 7, Apr. 2016.

[3]          K. D. Tipton, “Nutritional Support for Exercise-Induced Injuries,” Sports Med, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 93–104, Nov. 2015.

[4]          K. D. Tipton, “Nutrition for Acute Exercise-Induced Injuries,” ANM, vol. 57, no. Suppl. 2, pp. 43–53, 2010.

[5]          G. Shaw, A. Lee-Barthel, M. L. Ross, B. Wang, and K. Baar, “Vitamin C–enriched gelatin supplementation before intermittent activity augments collagen synthesis,” Am J Clin Nutr, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 136–143, Jan. 2017.

[6]        Medina, D., Lizarraga, A., & Drobnick, F. (2014). Injury prevention and nutrition in football. Sports Sci Exchange, 27(132), 1-5.

[7]          G. L. Close, C. Sale, K. Baar, and S. Bermon, “Nutrition for the Prevention and Treatment of Injuries in Track and Field Athletes,” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 189–197, Mar. 2019.

[8]          D. Thomas, K. Erdman, and L. Burke, “Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietitics, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 501–528, Mar. 2016.

[9]          S. van Vliet, N. A. Burd, and L. J. van Loon, “The Skeletal Muscle Anabolic Response to Plant- versus Animal-Based Protein Consumption,” J Nutr, vol. 145, no. 9, pp. 1981–1991, Sep. 2015.

[10]        T. A. McLain, K. A. Escobar, and C. M. Kerksick, “Protein Applications in Sports Nutrition—Part I: Requirements, Quality, Source, and Optimal Dose,” Strength & Conditioning Journal, vol. 37, no. 2, p. 61, Apr. 2015.

Hi there,

Training and competing pose challenges on the body with regards fuel stores, hydration and regulating body temperature. With a few exceptions, very few sports events put as much stress on the body as competing in a marathon. Here are some tips that will help you prepare and recover for your upcoming marathon.

Week Before

1- Rest and Sleep

While not necessarily a nutrition tip, it is vital to rest and sleep well in the week before your event. You have all the hard training done, although you might have a few light sessions planned. Getting at least 8 hours sleep every night will allow your body to recover and be fully prepared for the task ahead.

2- Carb Loading

We have two fuel sources that our body uses during exercise – fat and carbohydrate. At lower exercise intensities (resting, walking, jogging), our bodies prefer to use fat as we have large quantities stored in our bodies.

At higher exercise intensities (hard running), our bodies prefer to use carbohydrate stored in our muscles and liver as it can access it and release the energy more quickly. However, a problem with this is that we have the ability to store only small amounts of carbohydrate in our bodies (300-500g). If you’re trying to perform a personal best (i.e. exercising at a high intensity), there is a possibility of running out of carbohydrate (i.e. hitting the wall, bonking) later in the race. When this happens you will have to slow down, and you might feel dizzy, faint or disorientated.

In order to prevent this happening, you will have to carb-load. Carb-loading involves eating larger than normal amounts of carbohydrate in our to max out our bodies ability to store carbohydrate. This should allow you to run faster for longer.

The recommendations say that you should be eating between 8-12g per kg of body weight. As an example, for a 70kg person, this would mean eating between 560 – 840g of carbohydrate. This is very difficult to do eating a healthy diet.

In order to achieve this, you will need to cut back on eating protein, vegetables, fat and fibrous starchy carbohydrates (e.g. porridge oats, brown pasta and rice). Normally it is a beneficial to eat these types of foods, but they may stifle your appetite when carb-loading, making it more difficult to reach your carbohydrate targets.

You will need to eat more sugary types of carbohydrates (e.g. sugary breakfast cereals, fruit juices, jam, snack bars, sports drinks, smoothies, white flour based foods (pancakes)) and low fibre starches (e.g. white rice, white pasta, white bread).

Eating these types of foods allow you to over-eat and hit your targets. A word of warning – only do this when preparing for a marathon, when doing a long run (18+ miles) or practicing your race nutrition. If you do this on a regular basis, it will more than likely lead to you increasing your body fat.

Finally, I would recommend doing this 2 days before your race, giving your body time to digest and store carbohydrates and get rid of waste. You can then eat a normal diet the day before.

3- Hydration

When your body stores carbohydrates, it does so with water. If you’re eating and storing larger than normal amounts of carbohydrates, you are drawing extra water into your muscle and liver. As a result, you may need to increase your fluid intake. Keep a close eye on your hydration levels.

  • Thirst may increase.
  • Urine may be darker in colour.
  • You may only pass a small amount of urine.

If you experience any of these symptoms then drink a pint on water immediately and then drink 200ml every 20-30 mins until the symptoms above are improved. It is also best to drink with a meal or snack as your body will absorb fluid more efficiently.

Morning of and During Race

4- Breakfast

Marathons normally start early in the morning. Try and eat a breakfast 2-3 hours before the race start. This is highly individual but ensure you get some carbohydrates (e.g. porridge) and a small amount of protein (e.g. boiled egg) at a minimum. Continue hydrating (but not too much).

5- Eating during race

After the first hour of your race, you should be aiming to consume 30-60g carbohydrate per hour during the race to keep your blood sugar levels high, continuing to fuel your run. A typical sports gel will contain 30g of carbohydrate. So will 500ml of a typical sports drink. However, consuming these in large quantities can cause stomach ache, pain and diarrhea in some people. It would be a good idea to vary carbohydrate sources (e.g. ripe banana, energy bar, snack bars) to prevent these uncomfortable side effects.

6-  Hydration

How much you sweat during a race will determine how much fluid you drink. The environmental conditions and the course will play a role in this. You will sweat more in warm, humid condition and/or on a hilly course. Conversely, you will sweat less on a cold, windy, rainy day and/or a flatter course. Some level of dehydration is OK and may be beneficial as you will be lighter and will expend slightly less energy. This is typically up to 2% of body weight. Anything over this may impair performance. It is very difficult to give a recommendation of how much fluid you should drink, As well as the factors listed above, everyone has slightly different sweat rates. At a rough estimate, you should be drinking 400-500ml per hour.

Be careful of drinking too much fluids, as this could mean an early finish to your day!

After Race

7- Immediately after race

Within 0-60 mins of your race finish, you should try to consume a recovery shake containing carbohydrate and protein or if not available, 1-2 bottles of sports drinks. This will help to kick-start refuelling.

8- 1-3 hours after race

You should aim to eat a big meal 1-3 hours after a race. This should contain a large portion of carbohydrates, protein and vegetables. The carbohydrates will continue to refuel the body, protein will help to repair and rebuild muscle and vegetables will contain vitamins and minerals which will help your immune system.

9- 72 hours after race

Continue to eat breakfasts, lunches and dinners containing protein, carbohydrate and vegetables up to 72 hours after the race. One of the big complaints by novice marathon runners is DOMS (Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness). DOMS is muscle soreness which appears two days after the race. By eating regular doses of protein with your meals, this will help with repairing muscle and help to prevent DOMS or at a minimum diminish the muscle soreness.

10- Rehydration

If you have a portable scales then bring it with you to the race. Try and weight yourself immediately before and immediately after the race. You should have lost weight – if you have gained weight then this means you drank too much fluid.

If you lost weight, get the difference and multiply by 1.5. For example, if you lost 3kg then the amount of fluid you need to drink to fully re-hydrate is 4.5L (3 x 1.5). You don’t need to drink all of this immediately, but over the 24 hours after the race.

Word of warning – beer and alcohol don’t count towards rehydration. Drinking large quantities after a race will cause further dehydration and will delay recovery.

I would like to wish you all the best in your upcoming marathon. If you follow the steps above I think you will have an enjoyable race and hopefully hit a P.B.. If you have any questions, please email me at:

Yours in sport,


This is a post I wrote in 2012 for the now defunct Irish Triathlon website. I’ve decided to publish it here as it’s impossible to access. While my thinking has changed slightly over the years, this post could supply basic nutrition info. when preparing and recovering from a long cycle training bout.

Like most beginner cyclist, I made many mistakes at the start due to lack of knowledge. Early morning cycle without breakfast, straight to work and did not eat until lunch resulting in mid-afternoon fatigue. Or I went out on a long cycle, without refuelling properly from the previous day’s session. It would be a momentous struggle to complete the cycle, as tiredness kicked in and I had no food to take on board.

So as not to repeat these common mistakes, I have prepared a guide for your fuel intake for before, during and after your training session. This is based both on my painful personal experience and reinforced by my studies in Strength and Conditioning, Sports Nutrition and my personal experience with advising clients at metabolise

Firstly the some basic physiology; You need energy to fuel all activities and this fuel is provided by carbohydrate, fat and protein. We burn various combinations of carbohydrate, fat and protein, depending on the training intensity, training duration and fatigue level. In a relaxed state and low-medium intensity exercise, we normally burn fat more than carbohydrate. Fat is an abundant source of energy and we have enough fat on our bodies to fuel activity for days or even weeks. As the intensity of exercise increases, our fuel source switches from predominately fat to carbohydrate. Carbohydrate is an excellent fuel source, as it can release energy more quickly than fat. However, a major drawback of carbohydrate as a fuel source is that we have limited supplies in our bodies. At a decent cycling pace, we have enough carbohydrate to fuel 90 minutes of exercise, although this will vary with training status and diet.

If you are going on a 2 to 3 hour Cycle, then there is a real possibility that you might empty your body’s carbohydrate stores. At which point, the body switches to burning fat. The consequence of this is that you cannot maintain the same training intensity. It also leads to unpleasant physical consequences: marathon runners call it to “hitting the wall” and cyclists call it “the bonk”. Symptoms include tiredness, fatigue and lack of energy.

The good news is that all this can be easily avoided. By making the correct food choice , we can ensure that we start training with high carbohydrate stores, top them up while we cycle and refuel afterwards to prepare for our next training session.


You need to ensure that our body’s carbohydrate stores are full, by eating foods such as potatoes, rice, pasta and bread. As a rule, we should eat brown coloured carbohydrates (brown bread, rice, whole grain noodles and pasta) as opposed to white. Brown coloured carbohydrates are healthier for us in the long term and give a more sustained release of energy. Preparing for your training session should begin the day before. Eat a mixture of carbohydrates for breakfast (e.g. weetabix), lunch (e.g. baked potato) and dinner (e.g. pasta). Also, eat carbohydrate containing snacks (e.g. low-fat yoghurt’s) throughout the day. This ensures that you’re giving your body the fuel it needs and the time it needs to process and store it.

If you’re training early in the morning, you might not have time to eat a proper breakfast. In which case, eat a light snack or carbohydrate containing food before training – something that’s not too heavy or rich. If you’re training later in the day, continue to consume carbohydrates throughout the day. Eat your last meal 2-3 hours before your session.

During Training

Follow the above to make sure that you are prepared for training. However, depending on your training intensity, after an hour and a half, you might begin to feel tired. This is because you’ve burned much of your body’s carbohydrate stores and they’re now running low. Your blood sugar levels may also be dropping as your liver carbohydrate is used up. To prevent this, we need to start consuming carbohydrates in order to keep supplying the body with energy. This is easily achieved, but needs some forward planning.

You may experiment with different foods, but the most popular choices are sports drinks and sports gels. These foods are generally designed to ensure quick absorption of sugar into your bloodstream, fuelling exercise. You should be consuming 60-90g carbohydrate per hour. Gels are generally well tolerated but may have some unpleasant side-effects like bloating. Experiment with different gels and drinks to see what’s suitable for you. There are many cheap alternatives to Gels and sports drinks. Raisins and figs are two natural foods which were used by cyclists in years past when sports gels didn’t exist.

Post Training

So, you’ve completed your cycle, maintained a good intensity and are feeling rather pleased with yourself. Well, you’re not finished yet! The last thing you need to do is to refuel and repair your body so that all the potential improvements in fitness from your cycle can be realised. Firstly, you have a 45-60 minute window after finishing exercise when your body is better able to take up sugar and refuel. What I normally do is drink chocolate milk immediately when I get home. Chocolate milk contains carbohydrate for refuelling, protein for rebuilding the muscles, fluid for rehydration and various electrolytes and nutrients which are important for your health and fitness.

One to two hours after you finish, you can cook and eat a healthy nutritious meal. Although many people prefer pasta, you can eat nearly any carbohydrate containing meal, once it’s low in fat. This will continue the refuelling and rebuilding process and ensures that your fitness will increase. If you trained in the morning, continue to refuel throughout the day by eating carbohydrate containing meals and snacks, every 3-4 hours. Make sure to include protein (e.g. milk, eggs, fish, chicken) in your meals to help repair and rebuild muscle.

I hope you enjoyed this article. Hopefully you will now be properly prepared for your next cycle.

One of the most difficult topics that I have to cover with my clients is bodyweight. When someone is on a diet and trying to lose weight the temptation is to weigh yourself everyday and monitor your progress. However, this can be very frustrating as your body weight can vary considerably throughout the day. For this article we will explore some concepts related to body weight and outline the best way to track changes in body weight over time.

Your body weight is not one overall entity but is made up of several compartments.

  • Muscle
  • Bone
  • Fat
  • Other organs (liver, lungs, heart etc).
  • Water

The sum total weight of all these body compartments contribute to your total body weight. Changes to any of these body compartments will affect your overall weight.

For example, building muscle through weight training can increase body weight in a positive fashion. More muscle means a higher metabolism (burn more calories). Even though your weight might increase, the additional weight is as a result of increased muscle mass (which is desirable).

Conversely, eating too much unhealthy and processed food might result in an increase in body mass also, but this increase is as a result of body fat rather than muscle (which is undesirable).

Not partaking in weight training might mean a loss of muscle. This will show as weight reduction on the scales but losing muscle mass is not desirable.

Therefore, care must be taken when interpreting any change in body weight. It is always a good idea to try and get body composition (% of muscle and fat in your body) measured as this will give you a breakdown of where the changes are occurring (body fat or muscle).

One word of advice I give to clients when trying to either lose or gain weight is to only weight themselves once a week rather than every day. The reason for this is that there are wide fluctuations in body weight on a daily basis. Some of the factors responsible include:

Circadian Rhythms – normal daily fluctuations in energy expenditure, water retention etc

Hydration Levels – if in a dehydrated state then body weight will be lower than if hydrated.

Food intake – as well as resting in our intestines and adding to our overall weight, the type of food we eat can also effect bodyweight through the way that it’s stored. For example, if our bodies carbohydrate stores are low and we eat a high carbohydrate meal then the carbohydrate will be stored in our muscles and liver. Carbohydrate combines with water in our body to allow it to be stored properly. Storing 250g carbohydrate means that an additional 750g water will be combined with the carbohydrate in order to allow it to be stored properly. This could show up as a 1kg increase on the scales – however, this is not fat gain but the way our body stores carbohydrate.

Sleep – we lose weight when we sleep. As well as burning through energy sources, we also lose body fluid through breathing (respiration) and sweating (perspiration) while we sleep. It is not uncommon to lose 1kg weight over 8 hours of sleep.

The point I am trying to make is that weighing yourself several time per day or even everyday can be counterproductive. There is so much variation in weight that it can be very frustrating – why I am weighing more after my workout then before (maybe you drank a lot of fluid), or why am I 2kg heavier after this meal (maybe it’s water retention).

I advise the following as the best solution:

  • Weigh yourself:
  • Once a week (preferably on a Friday as this is when we generally weigh the least)
  • First thing in the morning
  • After visiting the bathroom
  • Before eating breakfast
  • In your underwear

It is best to track changes in body weight over a longer time frame (weekly) as any of the factors that influence daily variability in body weight should be negated and you will see a true reflection of longer term changes in body weight and body composition.

However, an even easier solution is to look at yourself in the mirror and you can see if you are gaining or losing fat and/or muscle. How do your clothes feel – are they looser or tighter; is your belt buckle coming in; are your muscles more defined; is your tummy flatter? If you have a friend or partner it might be a good idea to take before and after photos (every 4-6 weeks) as these will visually show changes in your body over time.

Thanks for reading,